Garden Chrysanthemums

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Chrysanthemum National Collection
(Excel Spreadsheet)

Further questions:

I need to understand more about the species:
C. coreanum is a sub species of C. zawadskii Nakai YN Lee S Korea
used in the breeding of the Koreans (trade name Alex Cummings)
C. rubellum Sealy now strictly C zawadskii (Herbich) Tzveler var latilobum (Maxim) Kitam (Compositae) Roger Phillips and Martyn Rix Perennials Vol. 2 1993, used in the breeding of the Rubellums (trade name Perry)

How different are the Koreans and Rubellums (using the names as a trade name in this instance) both have first crosses which are tall late and sweetly scented? (goto Message Board)

Breeding from C.weyichii R

Question what is the natural range of this species? How different is it from the other species?

The University of Minnesota has had a breeding programme for chrysanthemums since the 1930's
In the 1930's Dick Lehman had a business in Faribault selling plants and provided a ready market for the garden chrysanthemums raised by the University. he coined the phrase "Mums from Minnesota" and the autumn show attracted many visitors.
Other breeders were Dr Kraus Head of Botany 1927 University of Chicago then Oregon State College on retirement to Corvallis Oregon spent his last years breeding chrysanthemums again Dick Lehman grew these plants for sale, one of which was C. 'Ruby Mound' AGM. This was imported by Orpington Nursery UK in the early 1960's

University of Minnesota in 1989 found an open pollinated cross between C weyrichii and two adjacent chrysanthemums, the seedlings were tall shrub like, hardy and floriferous. The plants resulting from further crosses are now marketed as Mammoth Mums™ for hedging, landscape work, cold hardy to 30 F (-34 C)
In the third year can attain a height of 3.5 feet and 5 feet diameter.

Question can we flag up which chrysanthemums are cold hardy and those which are wet hardy (have both in collection) This is important for garden growing especially in the UK
It will be interesting to see how the Mammoths grow in the 2010 Wisley Field Trials

History of the Rubellum Chrysanthemums

Mr W G Robinson formally the Parks Superintendant at Happy Valley Gardens Llandudno received a batch of cuttings of C. articum (erubescens) for the rock garden in 1927-1928, these cuttings came from Sir Johns Stirling Maxwell's estate near Glasgow. They grew true to type, short plants with pink single flowers, but by the next season the plants were large three feet high and a mass of sweet scented larger flowers.

C. erubescens Stapf 1933 article 9330 Bot. Magazine describes it as a small rock garden plant with single pink flowers. C. zawadskii has a much more strict habit than C. erubescens.

Roy Lancaster Travels in China 1989 states C. oreastrum was renamed by the Chinese from C. zawadskii. Found at Changbai Shan in June near the N. Korean border, the plants forming low mats of grey deeply cut foliage with a single largish pink daisy, growing in shingle by a stream.

In 1933 plants were received of C. erubescens at Kew via Messers. Chilbrans of Altrincham from the Happy Valley Gardens Llandudno in Wales. Kew looked at the plants and decided they were not erubescens and gave the plants a new name rubellum.

In 1938 J R Sealy wrote a paper Chrysanthemum Rubellum and its Allies published in RHS Journal Vol. 63 pages 265-273.
"an investigation of the identity of the garden "erubescens" has shown that this plant cannot be referred to any known species but is related to C zawadskii var. sibiricum in the leaves and sweet-scented flowers."
"it seems advisable to treat it as a distinct species and to rename it. The name C rubellum was proposed for it."

These plants were obtained by Amos Perry from Kew and used as part of his breeding programme for Perry's Rubellum Chrysanthemums. The first plant introduced was C. Clara Curtis' a pink single in 1939
Here Mr Perry was using the name Rubellum as a Trade Name
The list ( Jump to List) has been taken from catalogues held at the RHS Lindley Library 27.10.03 and at Perry archives at Capel Manor Horticultural College 14.10.03

Breeding from Chrysanthemum indicum Alex Cumming's 1939 book

Native of Japan and China This plant has miniature pure yellow, single flowers seldom more than ˝ inch across carried on dainty sprays. It flowers in September and is not fully hardy in the UK. From this species has been bred most of the exhibition and florist chrysanthemums.

Breeding from Chrysanthemum nipponicum

Now called nipponanthemum nipponicum

C. nipponicum has been described in Curtis Botanical Magazine 1899 Vol. 125 7600 June 1st as a very distinct species collected by Maximoweiz at Jedo in 1862
There are also herbarium specimens at Kew collected by Father Faurie.
Described by Desser as a stout glabrous under shrub one to two feet high, with a simple leafy stem, woody at base. Leaves oblanceolate, three to four inches long. Single flower. Ray flowers tips minutely five toothed. Disc flowers greenish yellow.
This plant is not fully hardy in the UK

Alex Cummings in his 1939 book describes the leaves as leathery with an unusual texture. Plants bred from this species he reports have a heavy petal and leaf texture. He mentions cultivars such as Milky Way and Burma

This plant has been used by Luther Burbank in his breeding of Shasta daisies now called Leucanthemum.

History of Koreans using Alex Cumming book "Hardy Chrysanthemums" 1939 published by The American Garden Guild P. 54

Alex Cummings of Bristol Nursery Connecticut USA found in Harland P Kelsy's Nursey, in Carolina USA., plants of C.
coreanum . This was a strong growing plant with 3-4 foot branches of single 2 inch single flowers of pure alabaster white aging to carmine pink. C. coreanum was also very hardy and comes from an expedition by E H Wilson to N Korea for the Arnold Arboretum (page 54). The species is native to Korea and north to Siberia.
Alex Cummings used this plant as part of his breeding program and in his book he gives 2 plates showing his first crossings
Here the name Korean is used as a Trade Name by the breeder.

He also mentions on page 27 that C.
articum (properly C. yezoense), and C. nipponicum , have also been used in breeding by others so "this blend-within-blend hybridizing has made species identification almost impossible"

World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants
zawadskii Herbich ssp coreanum Nakai Y N Lee S Korea 17577
zawadskii Herbich ssp lucidun Nakii TN Lee S Korea

( Jump to Table of Alex Cummings Plants)

Question is C.coreanum a ssp of zawadskii ?

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